Reduction, replacement and ethics of animal use in bio-science research and education

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Nisha Aynikkattil Ravindran, Shadiya Pullikkunnummal Beegam Farhana Fathima Manzil, Megha Kelenchery Ganesh Srinidhi Yelawahalli Ramappa Shakeeb Ullah, Asif Javaid, Kamran Safdar, Muhammad Shuaib Khan


There is a widespread agreement to lower the quantity of animals used in the scientific research and education. Fewer animals should be used in the scientific and educational research practices. Major alternative to in-vivo trails are the encouragement in the use of in-vitro techniques.  In late 1950,s it was proposed to decrease the number of animals in in-vivo studies. Efforts should be made to decrease and substitute them with non-sentimental alternatives. The public concerns about animal use, and ethical issues in scientific trails were seen due to the increased use of animal models in scientific research and education. The learning goals of these laboratory works need careful considerations which may lead to an idea of using the alternative methods in research. It will also help to standardise the use of animals in the in vivo experimentation. In this review the overall types of alternatives and standardization in the use of animals in scientific research and education are discussed.

Keywords: Animal-Ethics; Animal Model; Bio-Science; Alternatives

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